Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

NARAC technical products show the areas that may warrant evacuation or sheltering of the general population, potassium iodide administration, long-term relocation, emergency worker safety measures, or actions to address contamination of agricultural crops. Health effects may result from inhalation of airborne radiological material, external radiation from immersion in the airborne plume, and/or ground shine radiation produced by radioactive material that has deposited on the ground.

Exposure calculations assume that individuals remain outdoors in the same location throughout the plume passage.


Manual of Protective Action Guides and Protective Actions for Nuclear Incidents (EPA 400-R-92-001, May 1992).

"Protective Action Guides for Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) and Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) Incidents", (Federal Register, Vol. 71, No. 1, Jan. 3, 2006, p. 174).

"Guidance: Potassium Iodide as a Thyroid Blocking Agent in Radiation Emergencies", (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), December 2001, Procedural).