Indoor Exposures

Outdoor plume resulting from a hypothetical subway release


LLNL has developed a variety of capabilities that are used to calculate indoor dose exposures from outdoor releases:

  • LLNL's PFscreen model estimates building protection factors from outdoor radiation
  • LLNL's Regional Shelter Analysis capability characterizes fallout shelter quality based on data on the different building types in a given area (shelter quality data may be combined with outdoor plume predictions to estimate the radiation exposure of sheltered population)
  • LLNL and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaboratively-developed building infiltration models and a U.S.-wide geospatial building-leakiness database estimate indoor exposures from outdoor chemical releases

LLNL also has worked with collaborators to develop coupled indoor and atmospheric dispersion models, such as the prototype combination of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) subway and NARAC dispersion models to simulate outdoor impacts from a subway release.

Example of a Regional Shelter Analysis (center panel) and the associated outdoor (left panel) and indoor (right panel) fallout radiation exposures (Dillon and Homann, 2011)